A complete guide on Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)- Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment. - Dr. Ronak Malani
Inflammatory bowel disease is a group of digestive system disorders that causes long term pain and swelling in the gastrointestinal tract. IBD is increasingly affecting people throughout India.
This condition affects all ages and genders but commonly happens between 15 to 30 years of age group The three main disorders that come under IBD are Crohn's disease, Ulcerative Colitis, and Microscopic Colitis. Crohn's disease can affect any part of the digestive tract starting from mouth to anus while ulcerative colitis occurs in the large intestine and rectum part of our digestive system.
Microscopic colitis is an inflammation of the large intestine (colon) which causes persistent watery diarrhea and can only be diagnosed through microscopic examination. IBD causes diarrhea, fatigue, stomach ache and bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract. For diagnosis of IBD the best gastroenterologist doctors are present in Surat city.
Causes of IBD
The IBD is not caused by a single factor. It is multifactorial where more than one condition gives rise to IBD. One of the reasons for this could be malfunction of our immune system. Role of the immune system is to fight with bacteria that invade through food.
During this fight off they attack the cells of the digestive tract too. Improper diet habits and stress aggravate the symptoms. It is also found that mutation of genes could be linked with IBD. Few drugs which are classified under NSAIDs group (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) may worsen the disease in patients. Those who have a family history of IBD are at higher risk. IBD is seen in all ethnic groups however white people are more affected compared to others.
Research has shown that people living in urban areas and nearby industries are more likely to get IBD. In the city like Surat where more industries are present in the outskirts area, there are more chances of the occurrence of this disease. Top IBD doctors are present in the city to treat this chronic disorder.
Symptoms of IBD
The common symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease are:
- Loose and watery stools
- Blood in feces
- Abdominal cramping and discomfort
- Weight loss
All these symptoms vary from mild to severe according to the severity of inflammation of the GI tract. It is also seen during the remission period that at some point of time the patient is symptoms-free also.
Sometimes in Crohn's disease, patients may get canker sores in the oral cavity too. Fissures and ulcers can occur in anal region in IBD. In Surat, super specialized IBD doctors are present to evaluate the severity of disease and provide the needful treatment.
Diagnosis of IBD
It is difficult to diagnose the UC and CD but modern techniques in medical science are helpful. For diagnosis of IBD the procedure called Upper endoscopy, Flexible Sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy and capsule endoscopy are done.
In a few cases, inflammatory bowel disease can be diagnosed by pathological tests such as complete blood count (CBC), stool examination and some other blood tests. Fecal calprotectin test is done to know the severity of IBD. The level of fecal calprotectin up to 81-91 percent can be provocative of developing the disease. An increase in the fecal calprotectin up to 89-98% can be alarming.
Diagnostic centers are present in Surat city where all these tests are done after consulting an IBD doctor present near your locality.
Treatment of IBD
The main aim of treatment is to keep a person pain-free and to reduce the symptoms by decreasing the inflammation. It is also important to know the type of IBD before commencing any treatment. For this consulting the nearby IBD specialist is recommended. With proper pathological tests and radiological examination, type of disease can be known. Inflammatory bowel diseases are majorly treated through self-care and medicines.
It is a fact that the main cause of IBD is not known, due to which single line treatment can not be done. IBD is a multifactorial disorder and eliminating the risk factors helps in reducing the symptoms. Managing your routine through proper nutrition, exercise, social support and staying on your treatment plan is important.
2) Medicinal Drugs
Firstly, less harmful medicines are prescribed; if these drugs do not provide any relief, more drugs are added. The medicinal treatments too can cause adverse effects in the patient. For this reason, the main aim for the treatment of CD is to prescribe weaker drugs, which can be later on replaced by stronger drugs.
Correspondingly, the corticosteroids, antibiotics, supportive medications and immunosuppressive drugs are used to treat IBD.
The effective use of drug compounds which have living microorganisms (probiotics), helps in the reduction of bowel wall inflammation. Omega-3 fatty acids are anti-inflammatory agents that can improve the symptoms and help in treatment of IBD.
3) Surgical Treatment
Surgical treatment is needed where medicinal treatments do not improve the symptoms of IBD.
- closure or removal of fistulas
- removal of affected portions of the intestines — for people with Crohn’s disease
- removal of the entire colon and rectum — for severe cases of UC
Is IBD a serious disease?
Inflammatory bowel disease in most of the patients is not a fatal condition. But sometimes due to aggravated symptoms or lack of right treatment it may cause life threatening complications.
What is the main cause of IBD?
There is an interplay of factors that causes inflammatory bowel disease. The main cause of IBD is still not known. Factors like gene mutation, weakened immune system, stress and improper diet, environmental factors, smoking etc play important roles in developing the disease.
What happens when you have IBD?
You will have diarrhea, abdominal pain, anemia, weight loss, bleeding from anal region, blood in stool, fatigue. Consult the nearest GI specialist doctor if you have any symptoms.
What are the 3 types of IBD?
The three types of IBD are:
1) Crohn's disease
2) Ulcerative colitis
3) Microscopic colitis
All three types of IBD affect the gastrointestinal tract and cause inflammation in one or more layers of intestinal walls.
At INFINITY GASTRO PLUS, you can make an appointment with a gastroenterologist or surgeon who are specialised in the treatment of Gallbladder conditions. For further information CONTACT US ON +91 9978836642.
Dr. Ronak Malani
Gastroenterologist & Colorectal Cancer Specialist